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The Best Traffic Exchange

Thursday, September 27, 2012


CSCW is a way to design a system that is used to help with the work as a group and how to understand the impact of the technology on their work patterns of CSCW is a groupware system that supports jobs.
Several phenomena affecting the use of computer-mediated communication:
1. Personal space
* In a communication face-to-face, each person tends to maintain a certain distance with his interlocutor.* The concept of personal space is different for every country / culture.* Problems can arise when your personal space conversations conducted via video links.
2. Contact and eyes
* In this communication, eye contact gives some hints, al feeling interested / bored, authority / power, social presence, etc..* Video-tunnel allows eye contact even whole facial expression.
3. Gestures and body language
* In this communication, we use hands (gestures) to point to something.* Some of the groupware system tries to overcome this by using a group pointer.* A lot of computer-supported meeting room to put the monitor on the table so that participants can see each other clearly.
4. Back channel
* Response from listeners in the form of body movement called back channel.* With the back channel, the speaker feels that the listener quite understanding speech.* Some of the problems associated with the back channel of communication that may arise in the video, al:o Communication videos tend the many highlights of the head and shoulders, thus losing some body movement and gesture.o The screen is large tend to reduce the detail so it may lose some information.* Audio links (eg phones) only has a verbal back channel.* Text-based communication usually does not have a back channel.
5. Turn-taking
* Turn-taking is the process in which the roles of speaker and listener exchange.* In the process of turn-taking, back-channel is usually an important part.* The occurrence of the turn-taking, a.l. because:* The speaker offers listeners the opportunity to explicitly, eg. ask questions.* The speaker gave a brief gap in the conversation.o Form granting gap of speakers mainly related to the audio channel.o The problem is quite serious in terms of the gap arising in the provision of long-distance communication (satellite based communications) due to time lag. There will be a gap of about 4 seconds.
Three function theory in CSCW conversation:
1. used to analyze the record (transcript), eg. electronic conferences. It will help participants understand how well the copy with electronic communication.2. used as a guide for design decisions. Understanding normal conversation between people avoid large errors in the design of electronic media.3. can be used to direct the design, structuring system theory.
Basic conversation structures
At a higher level, the structure of the conversation can be seen as a sequence of turns, usually change among participants.
Every greeting and fragments of conversation depends on the context in which it is used to eliminate the ambiguity of words.
There are 2 types of context in conversation:
1. internal context, depending on the previous utterance.2. external context, depending on the environment.
Breakdown in communication occurs when there is a difference in the focus of the speaker and the listener.
This breakdown can be repaired with any questions or remarks of the speaker / listener to focus cause the same dialog.
Speech act theory
It is a detailed analysis of the structure of conversation, typically used to provide guidance in the design coordinator, a system structured commercial email.
Text-Based Communication
* In the asynchronous groupware (and some synchronous systems), the dominant form of direct communication is text-based.* Text-based communication in groupware systems such as an imitation of the conversation, so there are some problems in adapting between the two media.
There are 4 types of textual communication in groupware:
1. discrete; direct message like in email2. linear; participants message is added at the end of a single record3. non-linear; while the message is connected to the others in the model hypertext4. spatial, wherein the message is set in a two-dimensional surface
Some of the problems that arise in text-based communication:
1. Back channel
* Loss of back channel and the tone of voice and body language of the speaker.
2. Grounding constraint
* It is the nature of the communication channel in which the speakers include:
1. cotemporality; greeting to be heard as soon as uttered2. simultaneity; participants can transmit and receive at the same time3. sequence; utterances sorted
* In the text-based system, different participants can compose simultaneously, but less cotemporality.
3. Turn-taking
* The absence of a back channel make it difficult for the listener to interrupt a conversation (turn-taking).
4. Context
* The loss of a back channel and possibly turn the overlapping, making it difficult to determine the context of textual expression.
5. Hypertext
* Reduced the steps of text-based conversation means that participants are forced to increase granulity message.

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